Scientific Name : Phaleria Macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl
District Names : Mahkota Dewa (Jawa), Simalakama
Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia-Jilid 3 (Dr.Setiawan
Dalimartha), 13 Jenis
Tanaman Obat Ampuh (B.Mahendra),
Tumbuhan Obat & Khasiatnya-Jilid 2
(Drs.H.Arief Hariana), Mahkota
Dewa (Ir.W.P.Winarto & Tim Karyaseri).
of Mahkota Dewa
Phaleria Macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl @ Phaleria Papuana
Warb Var.Wichnnii (val) Back
Mahkota dewa is
a plant that grows throughout the year, it can reach the height of
3-4m. Its sappy stem with brown greenish bark, white stem in color
The leaf has
oval, thin, long and sharp edge , flat smooth and non furry surface
The flower is
small, white in color and has pleasant smell. It looks like clover.
fruit comprises skin, flesh,….and seeds. The fruit is round in
shape, has diameter of 3-5cm, smooth surface, drill, green in color
when young and red when ripening. The flesh is white, fibrous and
It is the most
beneficial component of the fruit, which commonly used in
poisonous part. It has oval in shape, and the diameter is about 1cm
and has brown in color. The inner part is white in color.
Leaf :contains antihistamin, alkaloid, saponin &
skin : contains alkaloid, saponin & flavonoid.
Fruit : alkanoid, tanin, flavonoid, fenol, saponin,
lignin, asiri oil & sterol
& Benefits :
skin and flesh : cure dysentery ,psoriasis and acne.
seed :cure various types of skin pain such as eczema,
hepatotoxic & antibody.
antidysentry, antiinsecta, cure eczema, hepatotoxic & antibody.
* The new lignin
component in mahkota dewa flesh extract has the molecule of C6 H2O
O6 and structure of
capabilities of Mahkota Dewa
(High blood pressure)
fruit especially its seed is poisonous, it has to be braised before
women is prohibited to drink this processed plant.
Scientific Name :
Andrographis Paniculata (Bum. f.) wall.ex Nees
Other names :
Hempedu tanah, akar cerita, pokok cerita (Malaysia),
king of bitter, creat, green chireta (Inggeris), kalmegh
(India), Kirta (Sanskrit), Chuan xin lian, Yi jian xi,
Lan he lian (China), Sambiloto (Indonesia)
: Malaysia, Thailand, India, Indonesia
plant is also known by local as akar cerita. Hempedu Bumi plant
abundantly found in China , India, Thailand and Malay island. Could
be easily found at the peat soil. Hempedu Bumi is a herbal plant
that grows vertically. This seasonal herbaceous plant can grow until
70-90 cm heights. The upper part of the leaf is dark green in color
while the lower part is light green in color, smooth and arranged.
The leaf also oval in shape. The stem is green and has many
maturity : 2 months
to pick product : The part of the plant on the soil is harvested
manually before the plant starts flowering. Picking process is
done after 1.5-2 months.
leaf can used as the remedy to lower the high blood pressure
pressure, besides to cure diabetes, antiinflammation, antibacterial,
antivirus, relieve fever and as the phlegm liquefier. It is also
used to improve defecation, destroy the worms in digestive system
and fasten the blood clotting.
The method to
made it as the medicine is by braising the leaf to drink the water.
The leaf can cure wound by grinding it and paste it at the wound.
Chemical substances in the leaf can brake down the fat molecules
that present at the blocked bloodstream that cause the blood
pressure to increase. The braised leaf water that has bitter taste
trigger it to brake down the lipids molecules.
taste does not attract most of Malaysians. They are more interested
to sweet and salty tastes. The excess of sweet and salty can lead to
severe diseases but if we balance the tastes is much better for
health. This plant also suitable for insects bites. The easiest
method is take a few of the leaves and crush them. After that, rub
them at the bitten place.
Hempedu Bumi is
more popular in treating high blood pressure and fever. The usual
method is take a few leaves and clean them. Then, immerse the leaves
in warm water and wait until it becomes lukewarm. After that, drink
the water. It is quite bitter, especially for those who first time
drink the water. Bear in mind, drink once per day.
Scientific Name :
Gynura sarmentosa DC, Calacia procumbens Lour.
Dawn Dewa, Leaves of the Gods, Googoolipid, Mallucan
spinach, Sambung Nyawa, Daun Dewa, Am Akar, Akar sebiak, dan
Kelemai merah, bai bing coa, ngokilo (Jawa), beluntas cina
(Melayu), she juan jao @ fujung jao (Cina)
Sambung Nyawa is
an annual plant type that abundantly used in South-east Asia
countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand. However it is
originated from Myanmar and China. It can live with the height of 1
until 500 meters from the sea levels. It easily breeds through stem
and easily grows in shady area, with 40-50% rate of light intensity,
air temperature between 20-30 °C and has medium humidity with annual
rain fall between 1500-2500mm..It grows vertically, or sometimes the
edge collapses and comes out root, wet stem, branches, purplish in
color. Can reach 6 meters height and pleasant smell. Single leaf,
quite thick, easily brake, has branches. The leaf is egg rounded
shape, the edge is end and base pointed, serrated edge, bone fining,
colored light green. The flower is orange yellow, it rarely
surroundings factor, sabung nyawa plant needs fertile soil, and can
stands water. The best pH is around 5.5-7.It breeds through stem. It
needs much water, but not really wet and sump.
Contents and Pharmacology Effects
contents of sambung nyawa leaf are flavonoid (7, 3, 4
trihidroksi-flavon), glycoside kuersetin, fenoleat acid (from kafeat
acid, penta kumarat, penta-hidroksi benzoate and vanilat acid)
triterpenoid, alkaloid, saponin and tannin.
This plant is
cold and neutral. The benefits are antineoplastik,
lower warm body, cure lymph disease,
kidney disease, skin disease, decrease the blood pressure, lower the
blood glucose, antimicrobial, anticarsinogenic, sitotoxic towards
cancer cells, hypertensive, stroke, heart disease, high cholesterol,
disruption toss, fed up vocal cord, fed up scruff, cough and
can reduce the cholesterol rate and decrease the high blood
pressure. In Malaysia it also used to cure constipation, diabetes
and cancer. It also used to treat to treat kidney problems. Usually
it is eaten fresh. This plant stem commonly used to release fever.
It is also used
in medication for for kidney failure, dysentery, throat infection.
Besides that, it can be used to stop the bleeding, overcome
menstrual cycle problems, improve the kidney function, for animal
bite. The corm is used to remove haematom, swelling and brake bone.
Ways to use
medicine, braise 7-12 fresh leaves, While for external use, grind
the fresh leaf and paste at the pain place.
Kunyit hitam is
rarely found and has high medication value. Some believes that
kunyit hitam has mystic value. In India, it is planted commercially
because of its medication value.
It is used to
treat leprosy and it is said can lengthen the age.
Scintific Name :
Centella Asiatica/Hydrocotyle Asiatica
Tapak Kuda(Indonesia),Indian Pennywort, Gotu Kola
: C. asiatica
Pegaga or its
scientific name centella asiatica/hydocotyle asiatica is popular
among Malays. This plant grows at the moist soil like garden, farm,
roadside and paddy field. It is eaten as vegetables to enhance
appetite because its sweet and pleasant smell. It easily grows in
fertile area, quite moist and good irrigation system. It is
cultivated through shrub’s root. This small plant has many benefits.
It is rich in vitamin A, C and ion which it is always made as
vegetable for women after giving birth.
whole parts of pegaga, has many uses and benefits. In Indonesia, the
flower and fruit are not eaten because it it said to be the source
of rheumatism if taken excessively. However, there are also people
who believe that they might have long live and look young by
consuming such herb in their daily meal. However, according to a
research, it shows that pegaga can be always eaten but in small
quantity for positive effect. This is because the excessive intake
of pegaga will lead to narcotic effect and cumulative poisoning that
will trigger the tumor growth for long period of time.
The World Health
Organisation (WHO) has accredited pegaga as a herb that trigger the
healthy mind to think especially for children. Pegaga that is also
known as Centella asiatica has been accredited by WHO as it is rich
in various types of medical spices.
At first, pegaga
are eaten by Indians after seeing the elephant that well known for
its long age, always chewing this plant. Therefore, it is eaten for
long life. Nowadays it is taken as vegetable and juice because of
its taste and smell that increase appetite. Besides, it can be
consumed either in raw or in special dishes.
Research that is
carried out in 1949 shows that pegaga is effective to cure leprosy
and ulcer because of its antibacterial properties. The next research
is carried out around 1950s and the results shows that pegaga is
very good to cure injury, scabies and irritated skin. As the healthy
mind supplement, this herb is very effective to repair the mind
function like increase memory and attention.
This herb is
start used in Ayurveda medication. It is also used in Shennong herb
medication in China about 2000 years old.
Types of Pegaga in
1. Pegaga Cina or Pegaga Nyonya
2. Pegaga Daun Lebar
3. Pegaga Kelantan
4. Pegaga Renek
5. Pegaga Salad
6. Pegaga Gajah
7. Pegaga Brunei
BERITA HARIAN :9/9/07 SUNDAY, DIMENSI , HALAMAN-4
is also known as Centella Herb contains asiaticoside, thankuniside,
isothankuniside, madecassoside, brahmoside, brahmic acid,
brahminoside, madasiatic acid, meso-inositol, centelloside,
carotenoids, hydrocotylin, vellarine, tanin and mineral salts like
sodium,potassium, magnesium, calsium and iron.glikosida
triterpenoida that is mentioned as
and an extraordinary injury remedy. Vellarine gives the bitter
Pegaga can lower
the high blood pressure, prevent Alzheimer, extend the aging process
and expel the toxin in body. Currently, pegaga is abundantly used in
west countries as the nervous tonic to rest and increase memory. In
India, it also used to overcome skin problems.
In east, pegaga
is used to overcome problems such as distraught that caused by
physical problems. The latest research shows positive effect towards
blood circulatory system by strengthen the blood vessels and
capillaries. It also shows the good effects when used to treat leg
cramps, swollen leg,
leg problems that feels heavy and numb.
also used for weak body
and brain revitalization and also for women fertile.
As a conclusion,
pegaga is suitable for these ailments :
pain, Dysentery, Worms, Hemorrhoids
Stomach pain, Dysentery, Worms, Hemorrhoids
cough, Bloody vomit
Traditionally, in Madagascar and East
Africa, this plant, dried and crushed, has been used in the
treatment of leprosy, bronchitis, asthma, syphilis, and as a wound
healing agent. The Indian however, traditionally regard this plant
as a potent brain tonic and shows remarkable properties in terms of
treating senile decay and loss of memory, whilst it is also alleged
to enhance verbal articulation. In Chinese folk medicine, a
decoction of this herb is used for the treatment of colds,
sunstroke, tonsillitis, pleurisy, urinary tract infections,
infectious hepatitis, jaundice, and dysentery; as an antidote for
arsenic poisoning, toxic mushroom and as an external poultice for
snake bites, scabies, traumatic injuries, and herpes zoster.
Sometimes considered as a sedative, this plant has been known to be
tonic in Malaysia. Today Centella asiatica is the active
ingredient of many drugs and cosmetic preparations in Europe, U.S.A.
and Japan in the field of skin care.
Research began on Pegaga (Centella
asiatica, or Gotu kola) after its use by the indigenous people
throughout tropical Asia was observed. Among its many traditionally
uses is as a "cooling" or detoxifying medicine for skin conditions,
and for maintaining healthy circulation. It is now one of Asia's
most widely researched medicinal plants. Scientific evidence
confirms the active constituents, the asiaticosides, accelerate skin
healing, relieve inflammation and improve the tone of the
circulatory system, especially the veins. The remaining herbs assist
the removal of acidic wastes and reduce inflammation naturally.
Gotu kola is a mild
cerebral tonic, a
circulatory stimulant, a
Scientific Name : Curcuma xanthorrhiza
Name : Shu kuat keung wong (kantonis), giant curcuma, false
turmeric, temu lawak, temulawak, dilaw, dilao, temu putih
Pharmaseutical Name : Rhizoma Curcuma Xanthorrhizae
Location Found : India, Southern China, Africa and
Temulawak is a
natural Indonesian herb, but it only grows in Java, Maluku and
Kalimantan. Temulawak is considered as bush vegetation and its
leaves grow from the root and the height is about 2 – 2.5 m. Its
round shaped leaves (similar to Banana Leaves) covered one another
and shaped like a stem. Temulawak grows in low level ground up to
750 m above the sea. It can be harvested after 8-12 months, when the
leaves turn yellowish. The tuber grows from stem and has
dark-yellowish (brownish) color, 15 cm of length and 6 cm of
diameters. This tuber smells balmy and tastes bitter.
It has a
yellowish color because it contains curcuma substance that works to
degenerate bacteria and as a hepatoprotector. Temulawak also
contains atsiri essential oil, which is good to improve digestion
system, increase appetite and the production of breast-milk.
Sujono Hadi, a chancellor of Padjajaran University (UNPAD) Bandung,
in the 12th herbal conference in ITB, said that a research has shown
that temulawak extract has a good potential to cure liver disease.
Temulawak extract is also proven to be good to decrease cholesterol
level in the blood and liver.
plantation of temulawak nowadays is still not be done largely.
To occupy the
need of temulawak ,that currently still depends on the source from
forest that grows wildly. If the condition continues, it is possible
the tragic event that the extinction of some of woody species ,also
occurred to temulawak.
It is proved
that the amount of wild temulawak in East, has much decreased
compared to a few years ago. Thus, the incentive plantation must be
observation-Biological,phytochemical,pharmacology and plantation
technology have to be continued and upgraded.
of temulawak harvested product that is done not seriously, for
fertile soil reaches 4-5tonnesper hectare, meanwhile for no fertile
soil, only reaches 2-3 tones per hectare. In fertile soil and the
plantation is done good enough, the product can reach until more
than 100,000 tones dry per year.
Temulawak contains beneficial
components like curcuminoid & asiri oil(3-12%).Temulawak extracts
are from ash, protein, fat, harsh fibre, curcuminoid, sodium,
potassium, magnesium, iron, manganese&cadmium. Temulawak rhizome
extracts can be developed as the source of carbohydrates that is
used for food or spices in food.
The rhizome has sharp smell, bitter
and quite spice tastes. Temulawak has benefits of
antiinflamasi, tonikum and diuretic.
In the herbal medication, temulawak
is abundantly used to cure ailments such as :
1.Rheumatic and muscles pain.
3.Liver problems, yellow fever, kidney stone
5.Release cramps and overcome from repeating.
6.Haemorrhoids and irritation at the rectum.
7.Bloody diarrhea and dysentery. Also can cure
8.Cough and fever for children's.
9.White discharge problems and fungus
infection like Candida albican at the vagina.
11.Gastrics and excessive gases.
very effective to cure liver diseases. In several clinical research
shows that the hepatitis patients that take temulawak ,3 times a day
constantly in 3 month, shows the decreasing of SGOT and SGPT level.
SGOT and SGPT is a method to measure the disease stage by blood
test. Temulawak is able to protect the liver from viruses that cause
jaundice, hepatitis and other liver diseases.
Take 3-9g of fresh rhizome (dried 1-5g) and
braised it for a while to perpetuates the extracts oil and the
rhizome is eaten each time before eat. It also can smoothen the
digestion of food. Besides that, it is said can be the remedy for
cervical cancer and restore the health of the body warning : do not
consume this plant during pregnant as it may cause uterus
contraction and lead to miscarriage for the early stage of
pregnancy). The long period use of temulawak may lead to intestinal
the medication of Hepatitis
countries, hepatitis or liver disease ranks the third place of the
death factors after infection disease and lung disease. Usually it
is said as Hepatitis B that commonly occur very high, around
2.5-19.5%.Moreover for Pulau Jawa community reach until 34.5%.
About 5% of
Indonesians or about 8 millions people are infected to Hepatitis B.
In other countries like North America and West Europe commonly about
0.1- 0.5%.Currently, in Pulau Raya Atlantic ocean, the rate reaches
50% from the total community reported as carrier.
Besides as the
remedy for hepatitis, temulawak especially its curcuminoid, can
increase the HDL level (heavy lipoprotein high type that useful to
prevent coronary heart disease.)
function is can trigger the secretion of bile, pancreas, as the anti
inflammation nutrient and lower the blood pressure.
In lowering the
blood pressure, Gunster, researcher from Netherland, report his
experiment at 5 cats by intravena injection test from about 1% of
diluted temulawak in NaCl salt. It is proven can lower the blood
pressure of the cat, although the the mechanism is not cleared.
Gunster’s experiment, temulawak can cause contraction of uterus.
Thus, pregnant women are encouraged to be careful to use it as the
right dose is not confirmed yet.
has more benefits compared to ginseng. Temulawak has more than 100
components, whereas ginseng is limited. Curcuminoid active component
and a few other components atsiri oil is beneficial as antioxidant,
anti inflammation, antibacterial, antihepatotoxic,
anticholesterol,and anti platelet aggregation (blood clotting that
can lead to stroke). Meanwhile one of the atsiri oil components ,xanthorrhizol
is anti canser especially breast cancer. Immunomodulator activity
from cur cumin (contain in curcuminoid) that can increase the body
immune system towards diseases.
The result of
experiment proved that temulawak has no side effect compared to
chemical anti inflammation medicine that the price is much more
expensive. The consistent consumption of temulawak also can improve
the blood circulatory and it is good to prevent stroke.
usage, temulawak can be drunk by braising or made as juice by
adding honey, linden or sour. The encourage dose is 2 grams of
temulawak, however the usage until 6 grams still beneficial.
The usage of
temulawak in certain community in Malaysia is inherited. The result
is they become healthier. Besides,the research regarding the
benefits of temulawak are much done. We hope that more people will
accept this traditional medicine with all the evidences.
benefits of temulawak can be classified into seven which are
improve the appetite, repair the digestive system, maintain the
healthy liver function, lower the … of joints and bones, lower the
fat in blood antioxidant and help in maintaining your health and
prevent agglutination of blood.
braised temulawak for Rheumatic
Some people in
east drink the braised fresh temulawak that is mixed with tamarind
or squeezed lime. This drink is made as the alternative or to